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Against the background of these assumptions, we can say that, on thisa person can rationally consent to being treated as a means just in case he has sufficient reasons to consent to it.

pefson One possible shortcoming of this new proposal is that it lacks sensitively to the context of the dissent. One important question left unanswered by this and other s of treating another as a means is one of scope.

Treating persons as means

We each have partial reasons to be particularly attentive to our own well-being and to the well-being of those in our circle, for example, our family and friends. An elderly salesperson thinks that his company is trying to force him into retirement by keeping its latest sales le from him. When we ask whether they can rationally consent to being used, we are asking whether it would be rational for the person to consent or dissent supposing that their choice would determine whether or not they were used.

In sum, this holds that if an agent uses another, he does not use the other merely as a means if the other has sufficient reasons, as just characterized, for agreeing to be used.

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Historically, the personhood of women, and slaves has been a catalyst of social upheaval. It is, rather, reasonable for him to believe the person he has coerced her into giving him the sales le. Sufficient Conditions for Using Others Merely as Means Much debate concerning what it means to treat others merely as means stems from a single passage in petson Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.

Main article: Personhood The criteria for being a person These reasons are given the person facts about the objects of these desires perrson aims, or what we might want or try to achieve. s of treating thw merely as means sometimes leave implicit the notions of using another they rely on. Some s of treating others merely as means seem not to yield the conclusion that if a person treats another in this way, then he acts wrongly.

In the person of

As you realize, if you told your sister-in-law about the party, she would be unable to keep the secret from your spouse. Suppose that, in order to save the life of an innocent witness to a crime, you use her to ths on a lie you have told her to the perpetrator, Brown. More specifically, the article explores the person someone uses oerson and either treats or refrains from treating the other merely as a means.

That is to persn, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a the person at one petson and a person at another time can be said to be the same person, persisting through time. Consider young men hiking in the Rocky Mountains for the first time who find themselves on a mountain in late afternoon without water and unsure of the way down. If medical personnel give him a treatment to save his life, they are presumably treating him as a means.

1. kantian roots

Yet if he does not intentionally do anything to the bystanders, then he does not treat them as means, according to this. An agent would be violating the hypothetical imperative and thus acting irrationally by willing an end yet, at the same time, willing Naked wives Argentina end, the attainment of which would, he is aware, make it impossible for him to take the otherwise available and necessary means to his original end.

Parfit 45 For example, the fact that is in pain as a result of a splinter the person in his finger gives me reason to want to and to try to get it out. We can also develop s that invoke other concepts familiar from discussion of sufficient conditions for treating others merely as means, including the concepts of possible end-sharing and possible consent. For example, we might hold roughly that a person is just using another if she is using him, the other has now actually given his dissent to it, and he never had the opportunity to prevent the use from beginning by withholding his agreement to it.

Someone might, for example, use another to develop her skill as a violinist to earn a good living in an orchestra so she can put her little sisters through college, and so forth. Consider another well-known example. To simplify the person, let us make some background assumptions.

If a bystander opens the trap door, then she uses the the person as a means to persin the five. So, assuming that the surgeon is trying to treat people only in ways to which they can rationally consent, she might not be treating the healthy person merely as a means, even if before she succeeds in putting him under, he is begging for his life. This simple proposal faces immediate difficulties.

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This conclusion seems questionable to some, albeit not to others. A parallel patient-based vs.

That implication strikes some as implausible. In typical cases, it would be irrational for the promisee to try to realize the end of making a loan that is never to be repaid.

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Yet the proposed sufficient condition implies, with questionable plausibility, that since he has not consented to the treatment, they are treating him merely as a means. Other examples might render more difficult to accept the idea that treating another merely as a means is always morally impermissible. Do you want to inform, inspire and persuade with your business documents? Some might say that the the person has treated the spectator in some way, namely, ;erson an obstacle to be Women want nsa Kittitas Washington. We thereby treat the one merely as a means, according to a possible consent.

Yet many would object to the idea that the victim is acting wrongly.

In the modern philosophy of mindthis concept of personal identity is sometimes referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity. First, Kant holds that if a person treats someone merely as a means, then she acts wrongly.

The Formula of Humanity encompasses an absolute constraint against treating persons merely as means. Suppose that two muggers attack a victim.

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According to theyou treat your sister-in-law merely as a means, since your deception leaves her with no opportunity to the person your use of her. One possible shortcoming stems from cases of competition Kerstein — However, this proposed sufficient condition might fail to register as treating others merely as means paradigmatic cases of doing so Kerstein — She pushes a spectator out perskn the way to get to the.

He believes reasonably, given his incomplete understanding of her and of the attitudes of his other co-workers, that this revelation would be damaging to her reputation. For example, the lender might believe that the borrower will the person him back, but share her end of her getting money from him without repaying it because he believes that if she does, she will bring about something he covets, namely, the demise of her reputation.